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BEWARE: spocc provides you a nice interface to many data providers for species occurrence data. However, in cases where you request data from GBIF in addition to other data sources, there could be duplicate records. This is because GBIF is, to use an ecology analogy, a top predator, and pulls in data from lower nodes in the food chain. For example, iNaturalist provides data to GBIF, so if you search for occurrence records for Pinus contorta from iNaturalist and GBIF, you could get, for example, 20 of the same records.

We think a single R interface to many occurrence record providers will provide a consistent way to work with occurrence data, making analyses and vizualizations more repeatable across providers.

For cleaning data, see packages scrubr ( and CoordinateCleaner (

Do get in touch with us if you have concerns, have ideas for eliminating duplicates