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taxadb relies on a set of pre-assembled tables following a set of standardized schema layouts using Darwin Core vocabulary, as outlined below. The database dumps provided by providers supported in taxadb at this time are:

taxadb abbreviation name
itis The Integrated Taxonomic Information System,
col The Catalogue of Life
ncbi The National Center for Biotechnology Information
gbif The Global Biodiversity Information Facility
tpl The Plant List
fb FishBase
slb SeaLifeBase
wd WikiData, (
iucn The IUCN Red List of endangered species status,
ott Open Tree of Life taxonomy.

Please Note: taxadb advises against uncritically combining data from multiple providers. The same name is frequently used by different providers to mean different things – some providers consider two names synonyms that other providers consider distinct species. It is crucial to recognize that taxonomic name providers represent independent taxonomic theories, and not merely additional observations of the same immutable reality (Franz & Sterner (2018)). You cannot just merge two databases of taxonomic names like you can two databases of, say, plant traits to get a bigger and more complete sample, because the former can contain meaningful contradictions.

At the same time, it is also important to note that col, gbif, ott, are explicitly synthesis projects integrating the databases of names from a range of (many) other providers, while itis, iucn, ncbi, tpl, fb, and slb are independent name providers. The synthetic or integrated name lists are not simple merges, but the product of considerably expert opinion, and occasional nonsense automation. As such, they too represent novel (justified or otherwise) assertions of taxonomy, and are in no way a complete substitute for the databases they integrate, owing to both differences in how up-to-date the relative records are as well as to either expert disagreements or algorithmic miss-matches. taxadb makes no attempt to provide an opinion or reconciliation mechanism to any of these issues, but only to provide convenient access to data and functions for manipulating these records in a fast and consistent manner. (In fact, it is easy to use taxadb to verify that many of the names recognized in, say, ITIS, are not in fact included at all in Catalogue of Life or other databases that claim to derive from ITIS).

These providers also distribute taxonomic data in a wide range of database formats using a wide range of data layouts (schemas), not all of which are particularly easy to use or interpret (e.g. hierarchies are often but not always specified in taxon_id,parent_id pairs.) To make it faster and easier to work across these providers, taxadb defines a common set of table schemas outlined below that are particularly suited for efficient computation of common tasks. The taxadb format follows a strict interpretation of a subset of Darwin Core. taxadb pre-processes and publicly archives compressed, flat tables corresponding to each of these schema for each of these providers. The providers vary widely in the frequency at which they update their records, as well as whether they provide immutable versioned releases (e.g. col, ott), direct access to a database that is updated on a dynamic/continual basis without any log of the changes (itis, ncbi, others), or is simply unknown. The taxadb maintainers take semi-annual snapshots and distribute versioned releases of the underlying data.

Most common operations can be expressed in terms of standard database operations, such as simple filtering joins in SQL. To implement these, taxadb imports the compressed flat files into a local, column-oriented database, which can be installed entirely as an R package with no additional server setup required. This provides a persistent store, and ensures that operations can be performed on disk since the taxonomic tables considered here are frequently too large to store in active memory. The columnar structure enables blazingly fast joins. Once the database is created, taxadb simply wraps a set of user-friendly R functions around common SQL queries, implemented in the popular dplyr syntax. By default, taxadb will always collect the results of these queries to return familiar, in-memory objects to the R user. Optional arguments allow more direct access the database queries.

Data Schema

taxadb relies on the Simple Darwin Core Namespace for Taxon objects, [@dwc]. This is the mostly widely recognized format for exchange of taxonomic information.

  • taxonID: a unique id for the name (including provider prefix). Note that some providers do not assign IDs to synonyms, but only to accepted names. In this case, the taxonID should be NA, and the ID to the accepted name should be specified in acceptedNameUsageID.
  • scientificName: a Latin name, either accepted or known synonym, at the lowest resolved level for the taxon. While DWC encourages the use of authorship citations, these are intentionally omitted in most tables as inconsistency in abbreviations and formatting make names with authors much harder to resolve. When available, this information is provided in the additional optional columns using the corresponding Darwin Core terms. Please note: scientificName includes names at all taxonomic rank levels, it does not mean just “genus + specific epithet”. For example, “Animalia” is also a scientific name. The taxonRank column indicates the associated taxonomic rank.
  • taxonRank: the rank (as given by the provider) of this taxon. Please note: While DarwinCore specifies seven ranks as separate columns (see below), many providers recognize many more of possible taxonRank values, such as “superclass”, “superorder.” For example, NCBI (ncbi) and OpenTree Taxonomy (ott) recognize over 40 different ranks, many of which are unnamed, while Catalogue of Life (col), GBIF an others recognize only the seven principle ranks. Conflicting claims between naming providers about what rank a given name belongs to or what species are included in which rank are common.
  • acceptedNameUsageID the accepted identifier. For synonyms, the scientificName of the row with the corresponding taxonID gives the accepted name, according to the data provider in question. For accepted names, this is identical to the taxonID for the name. If not provided, it is assumed this is the same as the taxonID.
  • taxonomicStatus Either “accepted”, for an accepted scientific name, or a term indicating if the name is a known synonym, common misspelling, etc.

Some providers may report additional optional columns, see below.

Hierarchy Terms

Darwin Core defines several commonly recognized ranks as possible Taxon properties as well: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specificEpithet, and intraspecificEpithet. Additionally, the taxonomic rank of any scientific name can be specified under taxonRank, whether or not it is one of these names.

Semantically (specifically in the RDF sense), treating ranks as properties seems somewhat crude. Database providers (and thus different experts) disagree both about what rank levels they recognize and what names belong in what ranks. NCBI recognizes over 40 named ranks and numerous unnamed ranks. OTT, in true cladistic fashion, identifies all mammals as being not only in the class “Mammalia”, but also in the “class” of lobe-finned-fish, Sarcopterygii. To distinguish between these different treatments, it would be semantically most consistent to associate a (or multiple) taxonRankID with each taxonomic entry, rather than a a taxonRank. This ID could be specific to the data provider, and indicate the rank name that provider associates with that rank. Few (wikidata, with its strong RDF roots, is an exception) providers associate IDs with rank levels though.

In practice, treating ranks as properties (i.e. as column headings) is far more consistent with typical scientific usage and convenient for common applications, such as generating a list of all birds or all frogs by a simple filter on names in a column.


The taxonomicStatus value indicates if the name provided is a synonym, misspelling or an accepted name. taxadb does not enforce any controlled vocabulary on the use of these terms beyond using the term accepted to indicate that the scientificName is an accepted name (i.e. the dwc:acceptedNameUsage) for the taxon. Including both accepted names and synonyms in the scientificName column greatly facilitates taxonomic name resolution: a user can just perform an SQL filtering join from a given list of names and the taxadb table in order to resolve names to identifiers (acceptedNameUsageIDs).

Common names

Common names are available from several providers, but tidy tables for taxadb have not yet been implemented. Common names tables are expected to follow the following schema:

  • id The taxonomic identifier for the species (or possibly other rank)
  • name The common name / vernacular name
  • language The language in which the common name is given, if known. (all lowercase)
  • language_code the two-letter language code.

Linked Data formats

taxadb tables can easily be interpreted as semantic data and will be made available as RDF triples. This permits the richer SPARQL-based queries of taxonomic information, in addition to the SQL-based queries. This data format will be the focus of a separate R package interface taxald.


  • Identifiers use the integer identifier defined by the provider, prefixed by the provider abbreviation in all capital letters: ITIS:, GBIF:, etc.
  • Rank names are always lower case without hyphens or spaces. Rank names should be mapped to a table of standard accepted rank names (i.e. those recognized by ITIS, NCBI, Wikidata), and rank names should have
  • Encoding is UTF-8

Data Processing

A set of R scripts for pre-processing data from each of the names providers is included in the source code of taxadb, in the data-raw/ sub-directory. These scripts automate the process from download to generation of the cached copy accessed by the package. While specific processing steps vary across providers, the most of the scripts focus on extracting a variety of formats (mostly SQLite and various text formats) and combining tables into a consistent implementation of Darwin Core following the schema and conventions outlined above, and writing this data out as compressed (bz2) tab-separated value files – a cross-platform standard format that requires little specialized software to work with. Metadata regarding the provenance of each data file are also provided, including sha256 hashes of raw data (uncompressed data) are generated for cryptographic verification of data integrity.

Data Versioning

The above scripts are intended to be rerun annually to generate updated snapshots of the each of the data providers. Each snapshot is then distributed as described above, as a separate cache release. All taxadb functions interacting with the provided taxonomic names data can specify which version (year) snapshot should be used, which facilitates reproducibility and easy comparisons across versions. The scripts required to generate the data may be adjusted as needed if any of the naming providers change there own format over time. Additional names providers may be added as opportunity presents.