Compute individual conditional expectations for an ORSF model. Unlike partial dependence, which shows the expected prediction as a function of one or multiple predictors, individual conditional expectations (ICE) show the prediction for an individual observation as a function of a predictor. You can compute individual conditional expectations three ways using a random forest:

using in-bag predictions for the training data

using out-of-bag predictions for the training data

using predictions for a new set of data

See examples for more details

## Usage

```
orsf_ice_oob(
object,
pred_spec,
pred_horizon = NULL,
pred_type = "risk",
expand_grid = TRUE,
boundary_checks = TRUE,
...
)
orsf_ice_inb(
object,
pred_spec,
pred_horizon = NULL,
pred_type = "risk",
expand_grid = TRUE,
boundary_checks = TRUE,
...
)
orsf_ice_new(
object,
pred_spec,
new_data,
pred_horizon = NULL,
pred_type = "risk",
na_action = "fail",
expand_grid = TRUE,
boundary_checks = TRUE,
...
)
```

## Arguments

- object
(

*orsf_fit*) a trained oblique random survival forest (see orsf).- pred_spec
(

*named list*or*data.frame*).If

`pred_spec`

is a named list, Each item in the list should be a vector of values that will be used as points in the partial dependence function. The name of each item in the list should indicate which variable will be modified to take the corresponding values.If

`pred_spec`

is a`data.frame`

, columns will indicate variable names, values will indicate variable values, and partial dependence will be computed using the inputs on each row.

- pred_horizon
(

*double*) a value or vector indicating the time(s) that predictions will be calibrated to. E.g., if you were predicting risk of incident heart failure within the next 10 years, then`pred_horizon = 10`

.`pred_horizon`

can be`NULL`

if`pred_type`

is`'mort'`

, since mortality predictions are aggregated over all event times- pred_type
(

*character*) the type of predictions to compute. Valid options are'risk' : probability of having an event at or before

`pred_horizon`

.'surv' : 1 - risk.

'chf': cumulative hazard function

'mort': mortality prediction

- expand_grid
(

*logical*) if`TRUE`

, partial dependence will be computed at all possible combinations of inputs in`pred_spec`

. If`FALSE`

, partial dependence will be computed for each variable in`pred_spec`

, separately.- boundary_checks
(

*logical*) if`TRUE`

,`pred_spec`

will be checked to make sure the requested values are between the 10th and 90th percentile in the object's training data. If`FALSE`

, these checks are skipped.- ...
Further arguments passed to or from other methods (not currently used).

- new_data
a data.frame, tibble, or data.table to compute predictions in.

- na_action
(

*character*) what should happen when`new_data`

contains missing values (i.e.,`NA`

values). Valid options are:'fail' : an error is thrown if

`new_data`

contains`NA`

values'omit' : rows in

`new_data`

with incomplete data will be dropped

## Value

a data.table containing individual conditional expectations for the specified variable(s) at the specified prediction horizon(s).

## Examples

Begin by fitting an ORSF ensemble

```
library(aorsf)
set.seed(329)
fit <- orsf(data = pbc_orsf, formula = Surv(time, status) ~ . - id)
fit
```

```
## ---------- Oblique random survival forest
##
## Linear combinations: Accelerated
## N observations: 276
## N events: 111
## N trees: 500
## N predictors total: 17
## N predictors per node: 5
## Average leaves per tree: 25
## Min observations in leaf: 5
## Min events in leaf: 1
## OOB stat value: 0.84
## OOB stat type: Harrell's C-statistic
## Variable importance: anova
##
## -----------------------------------------
```

Use the ensemble to compute ICE values using out-of-bag predictions:

```
pred_spec <- list(bili = seq(1, 10, length.out = 25))
ice_oob <- orsf_ice_oob(fit, pred_spec, boundary_checks = FALSE)
ice_oob
```

```
## pred_horizon id_variable id_row bili pred
## <num> <int> <int> <num> <num>
## 1: 1788 1 1 1 0.8935318
## 2: 1788 1 2 1 0.1025087
## 3: 1788 1 3 1 0.6959198
## 4: 1788 1 4 1 0.3465760
## 5: 1788 1 5 1 0.1105536
## ---
## 6896: 1788 25 272 10 0.4409361
## 6897: 1788 25 273 10 0.4493052
## 6898: 1788 25 274 10 0.4696659
## 6899: 1788 25 275 10 0.3892409
## 6900: 1788 25 276 10 0.4565133
```

Much more detailed examples are given in the vignette